Finding Your Voice, An Author’s Quote

barefoot-dancing-indian-woman-bells-on-ankles

If your passions are strong and you’re a fighter, the question of voice is a superficial one. You are eager to speak; you only need the podium. That is, you need the writing technique. But don’t worry about voice. If you make sure that you say what you mean, you’ll have a strong voice. However, “saying what you mean” means being graceful and clear, which takes a lot of labor. Being yourself when you write means to edit, go back, sharpen, to say precisely what you want to say.

Josip Novakovich, an excerpt from his book Fiction Writer’s Workshop.

 

(posted by Jean Foster Akin)

Do I Use “Less” or “Fewer”?

by Jean Foster Akin

He spent LESS time writing this week as opposed to last week.
There were FEWER cats at the shelter this year than in previous years.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There is a difference between the words FEWER and LESS that makes interchanging them improper. It makes interchanging them a mistake. It isn’t the worst mistake a person can make, but let’s see if we can fix that mistake, regardless, so that it is one less mistake we make. Okay? Okay. Here we go:

FEWER

The word FEWER relates to the NUMBER of INDIVIDUAL ITEMS OR THE NUMBER OF  PEOPLE we happen to be counting. For instance, the number of pencils in a box, the number of toothpicks in a cup, the number of colored glass balls on a Christmas tree, the number of people at a party. The word FEWER relates to COUNTABLE things.

USING THE WORD:

CORRECT: “Unfortunately, there were fewer people helping out at the Thanksgiving dinner for the homeless than at last year’s event.” You can count people individually, so the proper word to use in this sentence is FEWER.

WRONG: “There are less people here than there were last year.”

CORRECT: “Have you noticed that Alpo is putting fewer dog biscuits in their boxes now, but charging consumers the same amount?” You can count the dog biscuits individually, therefore, use the word FEWER.

WRONG: “There are less dog bones in this box than the last time we bought dog biscuits.”

CORRECT: “Because of the fear of dangerous additives in the flu shot, fewer people are getting them.”  We can count the number of flu shots administered, and therefore the number of people taking them. We can count people and flu shots INDIVIDUALLY, therefore, we use the word FEWER in this sentence.

WRONG: “There are less flu shots being administered this year.”

LESS

The word “less” relates to SINGULAR MASS ITEMS, such as all-purpose flour, or sand, or grain, or rice, or salt water in the Atlantic ocean. Even the air around us is a singular mass item.

USING THE WORD

CORRECT: “Oh look at this! Last year I paid two dollars for a 16 ounce bag of rice, and this year I’m paying the same amount of money for 14 ounces! Those sneaky rice sellers are putting less rice in their bags!”

WRONG: “Those sneaky rice sellers are putting fewer rice in their bags.”

Of course, you probably saw the problem with that last sentence, didn’t you? But, you CAN say, “Manufacturers are putting FEWER rice grains in their bags this year,” because grains of rice CAN be counted individually, though why would you want to?

You can also use the word FEWER if you say, “Those sneaky rice sellers are putting FEWER ounces of rice in their bags.” This is because we can weigh and COUNT THE OUNCES in a bag of rice.

IN CONCLUSION

The word FEWER is used in sentences connected to INDIVIDUAL ITEMS and COUNTABLE THINGS: people, animals, marbles in a sack, shoes in your closet, etc.

The word LESS is used in sentences connected to SINGULAR MASS ITEMS: air, dust, water, advice, sunshine, publicity, etc.

 

Kinda & Sorta: The Indecisive Twins

 

by Jean Foster Akin

From the mouth of a parenting expert being interviewed on a national television program: “Babies are sort of helpless, so new parents need to be vigilant in anticipating and supplying their children’s needs.”

Really? Babies are sort of helpless? Gee whiz, Captain Obvious, tell us more.

On a dog-related program, from the mouth of a television personality who makes more money in one show than you make in half a year: “You have to kind of brush the dog in order to keep up with her shedding in the summer.”

Kind of brush the dog? What does that even look like? It isn’t the actual brushing of the dog, apparently, so what could it possibly be?

Talking Heads of the media are full of this, and it’s hard to take: many of them supposedly went to college for journalism/communication, they’re getting paid to speak well, and, quite frankly, they should know better.

WHEN YOU DON’T KNOW SOMETHING FOR SURE

There are plenty of places you can  use “kind of” and “sort of” and make sense at the same time. Say you want to express a lack of certainty: “We chose a blue for the bedroom that was kind of a mixture of blue, purple, and green. It’d hard to explain, but it’s very soothing.”

Or, perhaps you’re trying to describe an unusual flavor: “It’s tastes sort of like broccoli, but with green bean and spinach flavors too.”

EXPRESSING HESITANCY

The words kind of/sort of can also be used to express hesitancy. “Darling, I love you, but I kinda think we need to take a break from each other.”

You’re going to experience the other person’s tears or shouting, and it won’t be pleasant for either of you, so you hesitate a little before dropping the bomb, and you try to soften the blow with kind of/sort of. It won’t work, by the way, because any fool knows that what you’re really trying to say is: “I’ve grown tired of you, dear. I find you annoying and your incessant chatter mind-numbing.  I want you to go away now so I can pursue that hottie over by the bar.”

Mother says (while running for the Band Aids): “Tommy, you’re a smart kid, but trying to ride your bike down the staircase was kind of dumb.” Notice here that Mother doesn’t  want to call Tommy dumb, but she wants Tommy to see that he has done a dumb thing. Notice, too, how kind of/sort of in this case adds a soupcon of UNDERSTATEMENT (it’s actually extremely dumb to ride a bicycle down a flight of stairs, so soupcon is an understatement too).

UNDERSTATEMENT

When you want to be funny, using the words kind of/sort of can add that humorous understatement many of us enjoy.

Growing up in the city, my siblings and I enjoyed watching a fellow by the name of Tom Jones. That was not his real name; that was the name we gave him. Tom Jones was known all over the city for standing on busy street corners in tie-dyed t-shirts and bell-bottoms that looked like they’d been made on his Grandma Jones’s sewing machine, using her old kitchen curtains. On special occasions he wore a turquoise zoot suit that he must have gotten at Good Will, and bright green platform shoes.  He’d hold an invisible microphone (I think it was also magic) and crooned loudly and off-key to passing vehicles and pedestrians. He really put his all into it, and we loved the guy–from a distance, of course.

One day, my brother and I were heading to a coffee shop uptown when we were forced to move over on the sidewalk. You see, Tom was adding some Saturday Night Fever moves to his performance that looked a tad dangerous to passers-by. When we got out of earshot, my brother looked at me in a deadpan way and said, “You know? I think that gentleman is kinda crazy.”

Understatement at its best, and the perfect job for kind of/sort of.

1 Surefire Way to Come Up with Interesting Characters, Scenes, Dialogue…and It’s Right Under Your Nose

ae81225b9da0a0b3a99a6110.Lby Jean Foster Akin

I’m desperate to find that perfect phrase to be uttered by an important character at a pivotal moment in what is now just a manuscript yearning to be a published novel. But my skin tingles, I clench my jaw, uncharitable words begin to rise from my throat as neighborhood kids go from intermittent whining to all-out, full-throated screeching. I grit my teeth against the mental and creative intrusion, consider slapping the cover of my laptop right through the top of my desk.

Instead, I close my eyes, I begin breathing deeply, listening to what they’re fighting about, the frequency and intensity of their voices. At some point I forget my annoyance. I am now a biologist attempting to locate the nucleus of a cell. The high-pitched grousing of little people excoriating each other within their pack turns to plaintive wails directed at a Higher Power.

I hear a screen door creak and then slam as that Higher Power emerges from where she was washing dishes at her kitchen sink. She is bone-weary with arbitrating, and she clutches her sodden dish cloth in a resentful claw that has formerly been (and will be again) a soothing motherly hand.

Yes, I can see her in my mind’s eye, and I drop the cacophonous drama into my novel at the pivotal moment, and pour gasoline on my character’s fire in order to rev up the tension.

Or, I hold on to the cacophonous drama as an ingredient of tension for another story in the future.

The drunk Irish uncle troubling other adults as he sings tavern songs at a child’s birthday Scan 141770004 party is a perfect character. He’s a ready-made character that you can use to drift in and out of a story, to show up once in a bar scene, or to crash a funeral. He can be used as comic relief, or he can change the entire course of the protagonist’s life by getting behind the wheel of a car, or by accidentally starting a fire with a cigarette dropped from shaky fingers while falling asleep in the protagonist’s spare bed.  No tweaking needed to make him everything he needs to be.

He is right there under your nose.

The unapproachable woman with the bulldog who passes you each and every day on the street; the fussy accountant who hops on the bus with you in the morning; the twitchy mailman who skitters away from the house every afternoon, casting terrified looks over his shoulder, even though your dog is a miniature poodle and is always barking from behind your fence; the brassy waitress at your favorite diner who crackles her gum and calls you “doll”. These people can play big parts or small Scan 141770006parts in your stories. You can develop them into main characters and build your story around them, or you can drop them into a story in order to people an office or an apartment complex. It’s up to you how you use them.

Yes, change the names, if you know them, and don’t paint a picture of a family member or co-worker so exactly that everyone in your neighborhood figures out easily who the character really is in your life. Avoid relationship problems or court costs by not allowing your characters to be recognizable to their true-life counterparts—especially if you’ve decided to cast those people as your stories’ thieves, unfaithful husbands, or murderers.

But use them. They’re right there, under your nose, so be careful about obvious identifiers, but don’t be shy.

A writer can recycle Life, and she should.

 

 

 

[drawings copyright free]

[Photo, scene from On the Waterfront, 1955]

No Perfect First Chapters

leonard-bishopIn the vast and various realm of ‘how-to-write guides’ there is no law, canon, edict, ukase, tenet or rule that declares that the writer must begin at the beginning of the novel he wants to write. The only fully functional rule that exists is one that states, any handicap or barrier that prevents you from beginning your novel must be overcome.

Yes, the writer needs a strong, interesting, believable, dramatic and reader-hooking opening chapter. It is essential. But what if he hasn’t found it yet? Is the remainder of the novel to stand poised in some musty, suffocating corridor, waiting to be launched into existence? You must not be stopped. Procrastination is the thief of time.

… The traditional guides in the “how-to-write” realm are valueless if they stop you from writing. Begin anywhere in the novel and, in time, as you write, you will acquire the perfect first chapter.

Bishop, Leonard. Dare to Be a Great Writer, 329 keys to powerful fiction. 1988. Writer’s Digest Books. Cincinnati, Ohio.

[photo, ©The Estate of Leonard Bishop]

Thoughts on Querying Literary Agents

IMG_0918*Jean Foster Akin*

A concerned woman approached me recently and told me that since her husband had uploaded his self-published fiction to Amazon, he was dismayed that no literary agents or publishers had yet contacted him. As adorably innocent as this sounded coming out of her mouth, it showed a total lack of knowledge on her husband’s part—the guy who supposedly sees himself as a “professional author”.  And there’s no excuse for it.

I am not a literary agent, but I’ve been traditionally published so you know I’ve contacted more literary agents over the years than I can count. Always after extensive research, and (even then), always with fear and trembling.

I’ve worked with other writers since the year 2000, editing their manuscripts for traditional publication. It still shocks me the number of modern writers who are not traditionally published but who want to be, and who don’t know anything about the publishing process.

It’s hard enough getting the attention of an agent when presenting good work according to an agency’s particular guidelines. When a writer doesn’t even know there are guidelines, well…So, when you feel ready to query literary agents regarding your completed work:

  • make sure you are actually ready to query literary agents. You’re not ready to query if you haven’t read and re-read your work several times, self-editing as you go. Hiring a professional editor is a good idea if you can afford it; but don’t even do that until you have done your own editing, several times. IT IS ALL ON YOU. If you have any question that your work isn’t the very best it can be before sending it to an agent, don’t bother sending it until you are.
  • When your manuscript is truly ready, sit down with a bound guide to literary agents, research literary agents’ websites online, or go to Writer’s Digest and sign up at their Writer’s Market to begin accessing their agent/publisher listings online. There are resources aplenty for budding writers!
  • Read guidelines carefully. Read guidelines carefully. Read guidelines carefully.
  • Do not send any genre to an agency which is not specified in their listing. Just because they want police procedurals doesn’t mean they want gumshoe.
  • Find the name of the person in the agency who handles your genre. If more than one agent handles your genre, read the particular agents’ information. One agent might be looking for stories involving strong female leads, another might be looking for the male under-dog. Go from there.
  • Do not send your work “To Whom It May Concern,” or you’ll probably find it doesn’t concern anyone.
  • Send exactly what the agent asks for and nothing else. If the agent wants a query letter about your murder mystery, the first chapter of the manuscript, and a brief one-page synopsis of the story, do not send the first three chapters, a ten page synopsis, and a picture of the elderly next-door neighbor on whom you based your book character’s first victim.
  • If you don’t understand what a query entails or what a synopsis is, go study up! They are different animals altogether and one resembles technical writing more than the other.
  • Do not get creative in the packaging of your manuscript if you are sending itIMG_0920 by post. A few years ago, I read special notes added to an agent’s listing wherein he warned those hoping for his representation to send their manuscripts in boxes designed for that purpose. Apparently, he’d received a manuscript hidden in the center of a large television box filled with foam peanuts. It took his staff an hour to get all the peanuts up off his office carpeting. Do you think the writer who sent this Trojan Horse got the attention of the agent? I do too. Do you think the writer made the agent happy by sending a manuscript in this memorable way? I’m guessing no. Do you want the agent you query to feel good about sitting down to read your sample, or do you want him royally pissed off first? If you want to piss him off, please, act like a totally unprofessional ignoramus and send your manuscript in a refrigerator box! All the writers waiting in the very long line behind you will thank you for getting out of their way.

Scan 142240003

 

 

Guiding Your Characters Through Their Therapy Sessions

IMG_0631by Jean Foster Akin

I was reading an article the other day entitled “Write Yourself Well.” It was written by John F. Evans, Ed.D and the reason I clicked the link for it was because I was intrigued to know how psychologist see writing as a means to therapy and wellness.

In the article, I learned of Dr. James Pennebaker, Chair of Psychology at the University of Texas in Austin, who is the discoverer of the connection between wellness and expressive writing.

Writing, for me, has been an entertaining pursuit, true, but it’s also been therapy more than once in my life. Perhaps I need to be more honest: it’s been therapy so often in my life, I can hardly think of a time when it wasn’t. Even if what I’m writing about has absolutely nothing to do with the problem at hand, there is a mesmerizing, calming, positive effect to writing for me. And apparently there’s more to it than the emotion of getting thoughts or stories on paper—there’s physiology involved too. You see, yesterday I was talking to a very intelligent lady who told me that there are nerves that run along the fingers we use to hold our pencils and pens when we’re writing, and that these nerves travel right up our arms to the back of our noggins, and apparently (I’m paraphrasing here), the act of writing stimulates these nerves which stimulate the brain, and the brain gets all jazzed about the writing, and before you know it, you’ve got a lot of jazz going on…including very long sentences with lots of commas in them. Please forgive the clinical nature of that description, folks.

Unlike novel writing,  letter writing, or sky writing, in  expressive writing you focus more on feelings than on “the events, memories, objects, or people in the contents of a narrative”, says Dr. Evans. “Like narrative writing, expressive writing may have the arc of a story’s beginning, middle, and end. Sometimes expressive writing behaves like a story that swells to a crest and resolves itself on firm ground. But often [it’s] turbulent and unpredictable, and that is OK. Expressive writing is not so much about what happened as it is about how you feel about what happened…”

What Dr. Evans says sounds okay to me. But it also sounds scary. I’m not talking about the scariness of other people seeing what I would write during an expressive writing session, or the scariness of worrying if the person reading would judge what came out of my soul. I’m talking about the terror of knowing what I’m thinking myself. The terror of writing down things I would never say…even to myself. The terror of finding out how dark things probably are down there. The terror of remembering those things that I have carefully covered in layers and layers of camouflaging branches and vines and moss over the years. Those painful things I have buried so meticulously, and yet with an air of disinterest…”Nothing to see here.”

Oh, but there is something to see. So I asked myself, would expressive writing help me unearth what’s hidden? Would I want to unearth it? Do I have the courage? And while I was thinking as a human being with a past of hurts (like so many others), the writer in me asked: would expressive writing, applied to one of my novel characters, help me write that character better?

I know! What a twist on things. Why would I even think such a thing? Could using a healing exercise on a totally fictitious person, weird as that sounds, help me create complex characters that would grab the interest of readers and make them care enough to turn to the next page?

We write histories for our characters–at least I know I do, and so do a lot of writers out there. We don’t need to tell readers everything about a character’s history, we may only wish to hint at a character’s past in a novel (depending on genre, we’ll play off those histories or we’ll play them down), but if we know about those histories ourselves, we can build characters with unique habits and fears,  talents, interests, and quirks that feel real to readers.

So, what if we have a character in our minds percolating away, one with at least some of a history, but one we have yet to bring to life on paper? And what if we have that character “sit down” and do an expressive writing exercise?

If you were to use expressive writing yourself, you would sit down in a quiet place and write continuously about a devastating trauma for twenty minutes, four days in a row. You would not allow your pencil to come off the page for those four twenty-minute sessions. You would not allow anyone to see what you’re writing, and, in fact would have already planned to destroy the results of each session so as to free yourself from attempting to edit your feelings or change your wording in order to make your feelings less “ugly.”   So, why not sit your main character down and allow her to dictate her feelings to you—the completely understanding, non-judgmental Entity that you are?

As the creator of the character, you have developed her history, but have you “allowed” her to tell you what she feels about what has happened to her in her life, to tell you why she has acted as she has in the NOW of your story? You might find, if you do, that her actions  will seem contrived to your readers, based on your character’s past and emotional upheavals–in which case you’ll know your character needs work. But then, you might find you’ve developed your character well, based on her past and emotional upheavals, and that you’ve found your story’s sweet spot. Then you can move forward with your tale.

Writing From the You

DSC04065by Jean Foster Akin

Do you find when you sit down to write that the part of you that wants to please stops you from writing things that would shock Aunt Mary, or make your snarky cousin Jim sneer? Are the people in your life also in your head when you’re wringing out a tale?

It’s hard not to think of the people who will eventually read your work and either sigh with satisfaction over the beautiful way you turn a phrase, or be annoyed to find your name on the front cover of a novel that retails for $24.99.

Then again, sometimes the things that stay our writing hands are remembrances of our high school English teachers making us recite the rules over and over, and slashing away at our inexperienced and heart-felt creativity with red pens. Or maybe the monsters lurking in our minds come from some article we read by some grammarian who admonished us that there is never, ever, any reason whatsoever to use the word “and” at the beginning of a sentence. The opinions of others, the prejudices of others,the sensibilities of others, clamp down on the lids of our creative toy boxes, and leave us staring at the blank page with enormous headaches in our eyes.

We have to put the nay-sayers out of our heads when we write. We need to become immersed in the world we’re creating as well as the thoughts and feelings of the “people” who live there because we birthed them from our own souls. Our characters will not always be people our Aunt Tiz would approve of—but that’s life, isn’t it? If we want to bring the world something fine, it needs to flow from our own unique spirits, and not be a carbon copy of something we read that flowed from someone else’s spirit…or their blackboard…or their narrow, uninterested, desert of a mind. We should write, write, write, always knowing we can go back later and make changes, delete things, add things. But we should delete and add because we see this will bring the work closer to perfect…not because we are trying to please someone else.

But lest someone misunderstand and think I’m saying that writers should write anything at any time with no regard to anyone else, let me say this: we MUST weigh the cost of Truth. Frank McCourt did not write Angela’s Ashes until his mother was dead, because some of the history he was to recount would have humiliated her in ways you would understand if you read that amazing, gritty, beautiful work. Mr. McCourt, therefore, saw his first novel published as he was turning seventy…because he cared about his mother’s feelings—and that was a good thing. “This is a small hymn to the exaltation of women,” Mr. McCourt wrote in the acknowledgements of that book.

Write about your truth: how remembering the Christmas you were six still makes your throat tight with sorrow. How you feel you’ve wasted your life on things you were positively sure were things that would make your life worth living. How a tragedy caused you to feel “unmade” and how you’re pretty sure you’ve lost your faith.

And don’t be afraid to write about the truth of beauty. Truth is not all in the devastations, the soul-tearing abandonments. Remember there is truth in love, in friendship, in doing good to others, in opening your arms and giving without counting the cost, in discovering that the human heart is softened toward others in tragedy. Those truths are worth writing about too, and are just as needed in this world.

Whatever you write about, write it the way you write it—not in the way you think you should write it after reading another article entitled How to Write; not in the way you think your brother would want you to write it, or in a way that you hope will alleviate criticism from others. Write it from the deepest part of yourself, from the place that is YOU. And when you do that, you are working your own therapy, you are writing REAL, and you are opening the eyes of others to a perspective they might never have considered.

 

photo taken by Dean Akin of Buttermilk Falls in Schaghticoke, NY (do not use except by permission)

But then, she isn’t a writer….

DSC04577I left a still relatively green Virginia last week to spend a few days where I was born, in cold, white, Upstate New York. I visited with some friends and family, but could not completely put my writing on hold. I never can, really. If the blogs aren’t calling my name, the newest novel is, and so I spent quite a bit of time writing during “down time,” and thinking about writing when I was occupied elsewhere. One day, when nothing much was going on and I could fit in a few hours of writing, my hostess told me that she was shocked by how long I could spend typing away at the keyboard. “I’d go out of my mind,” she said. But then, she isn’t a writer.

Back home in Virginia once again, I posted a quote on my sister blog, Writing New Worlds, from one of my favorite authors, Natalie Goldberg, and it read: “I met a doctor the other night who told me he had always wanted to be a writer. I nodded. People always tell me that…Then I thought to myself, ‘You know, I’ve never met a writer who wanted to be anything else. They might bitch about something they’re writing or about their poverty, but they never say they want to quit…and if they do abandon it they become crazy, drunk or suicidal.’ Writing is elemental.” **

Truth. A born writer wants to write. A born writer can’t not write, or at least, she can’t not write for long. She does other things, surely, or she can’t be much of a person either, let alone any kind of writer. She walks the back roads with the dog. She lays in bed at night with her husband, whispering in the dark. She holds her children and feeds them and worries over them and would die for them if it would help things. She is, thank God, changed by them. She lives, yes, but a big part of her living is her writing. A born writer can’t get away from writing any more than she can separate herself from loving her kids, loving her man. It’s deep in her DNA. It’s as elemental as breathing. Take it away, and she can’t feel whole. No, she really can’t.

On the surface, writing seems to allow us to flex our creative muscles. But it is not that easy: through it we stumble into our murkiest thoughts, we’re forced to work out how we really feel about the chaos and the calamity and the changes and the surprises. Writing becomes the womb we run to when we feel weak or overwhelmed or terrified or lost. It entertains us while others around us complain that there’s nothing on TV. Writing helps us make sense of the darkness. Or, if it does not help us make sense of it, it helps us slow things down enough so we can at least catch our breath, get our bearings.

That’s what writing does. And only a writer sees all the possibilities in the simple act of curling fingers around pencil and laying that tip upon rough paper; in the act of arching fingers over keyboard and bringing them down upon keys.

Writing is blood and bone and breath to those of us who were born to do it. Writing doesn’t make me go out of my mind, it has kept me, often, from going out of my mind—though sometimes, I admit, I’ve gotten dangerously close to that abyss. Writing has been the rope I’ve clung to at the edge.

 

Jean Foster Akin

photo by JFA; please do not use except by permission

Words Commonly Confused and Misused

DSC06830Naturally, we don’t want to use words that make no sense in our writing, not unless we’re deliberately writing nonsense, that is, or unless a character frequently confuses words for some reason. In THE ACCIDENTAL TOURIST, by Anne Tyler, we see writer Macon Leary talking with Dog Trainer/Personal/ Shopper/Survivor of All Life Throws at Her, Muriel Pritchett. She’s telling him about her one-time job working at a business which offered copy services to its customers.

“I’ve never been so disinterested.”

Macon stirred and said, “Don’t you mean uninterested?”

“Exactly. Wouldn’t you be? Copies of letters, copies of exams, copies of articles on how to shop for a mortgage…”

Muriel doesn’t get it, and that’s okay—she isn’t a writer, she is a flawed character (like all of us), and a life giver (which all of us should strive to be). We should also strive, as writers, not to feel the need to correct every mispronounced word or wrongly used word that is uttered by non-writers. It’s not nice to make other people feel stupid just because they used the wrong word in a sentence. Eventually people will stop talking to us altogether..I mean all together…I mean…Well, you know what I mean. We wouldn’t want non-writers to make us feel stupid because we don’t understand pi, or because we can’t change a tire, or because we have no idea where to start when it comes to making a really good loaf of bread. Parents, teachers, and editors are exempt from this dictum as long as they can correct nicely. All that said, and for our own reference as writers, let’s look at…

Some words commonly confused with each other* and misused:

assent ([noun]. agreement or approval)

and

ascent ([verb]. the act of rising, climbing up)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

censure pronounced: sen-shur ([v]. to criticize strongly)

and

censor pronounced: sen-sor /sen-sur ([v]. to ban, as in banning books or films, etc, or, [n]. a person who bans)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

disinterested ([adj]. impartial)

and

uninterested ([adj]. not interested)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

tortuous ([adj]. full of twists and turns; complex)

and

torturous ([adj]. full of pain and suffering)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

story ([n]. a tale or an account)

and

storey ([n]. level of building or floor of building, ex. Phyllis lived on the fourth storey of the Broadbent Apartments.) NOTE: many spell-checkers will correct your spelling if you write the word “storey” to mean “floor of building.” Don’t pay attention. They’re wrong. Or, at least, you are not wrong. Language does change. At one point, recipe books gave you the method on how to make this or that flavor of “cooky.” Now we write “cookie.” Everyone knows what you mean regardless of the way you spell it, but your spell-checker will attempt a scholastic slap-down on you if you use “cooky” these days. The word “storey” causes the same still acceptable. So, if you want to write “she lived on the fourth storey” instead of “she lived on the fourth floor,” write it with confidence.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

stationary ([adj]. not moving)

and

stationery ([n]. writing paper, greeting cards, on which people used pens or pencils to write letters to their friends, family, and business associates before email came on the scene).

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

all together (all in one place, as in “We’re going to the movies all together.”)

and

altogether (on the whole, as in “No, Sylvia, that’s not a little bit wrong, that’s wrong altogether.”)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

And a big one now in these days of the Cyber World:

 

sight (the ability to see)

and

site ([n]. a location, as in “Bradley can’t come to the phone. He’s at the building site, looking over the architect’s plans.” This word is also the one you use to designate “pages” on the Internet, as in, “Please go to my web site and you will be able to look up my store inventory and place your order online.”)

For more words that we commonly mistake for each other, go to OxfordDictionaries.com or perform your own web search.

*http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/words/commonly-confused-words

posted by Jean Foster Akin